Over the last 35 years I have made 28 films, mostly on art. I was introduced to filmmaking by Charles Eames who invited me to co-direct two films with him, “Daumier, Paris and the Spectator,” 1976 and “Cézanne, the Late Work,” 1977. From Charles I learned about a way of looking and filming that has greatly influenced me. Over the years I have had other fruitful collaborations, most notably with Richard Leacock and Ned Burgess as cinematographers, and James Rutenbeck, Nicole Serres, and Erika O’Conor as editors.

My early experience as a dancer has deeply effected my approach to filming art— the sense of movement, of rhythm, of what can be conveyed without words. ln making films on art, you have to confront the stillness and silence and consider what the film might give back that makes such transgressions supportable.

In recent years I have turned my attention to films on the history of ideas in early 20th century Europe. In 2011 I made a film on my father, “Nahum Glatzer and the German Jewish Tradition.” “The Passages of Walter Benjamin”, on the literary and cultural critic’s study of the 19th Century Paris Arcades was completed at the end of 2014. I have just completed a one hour documentary “Aby Warburg: Metamorphosis and Memory.”

My films are archived at the Harvard Film Archive and some at the Louvre in Paris.

55 min. 2014.

In 1933, Walter Benjamin, one of the most brilliant literary and cultural critics of his time, fled Berlin when the Nazis took over and headed for Paris. There he sat, at the Bibliothèque nationale, working in poverty and relative obscurity on his most important project, “The Arcades Project.”

With the backdrop of totalitarianism spreading across the European continent, Benjamin explored the origins of modernity. Praising the poet Charles Baudelaire and employing his emblematic characters especially the flâneur and the rag picker, Benjamin wanted to counter the “false semblance of totality.” This enormous incomplete study is both a collection of sources for a radical history of 19th century Paris and the basis for an allegorical critique of European fascism in the 1930s.

What Benjamin sought was “images, not stories.” Stories were too complete for him; by contrast, images could be recombined, or recomposed, into a montage. Thus he was a fan of documentary film that could create the surprising and revealing juxtapositions he was after.

In 1940, as the Nazi armies invaded Paris, Benjamin gave over his Arcades notes, to the writer George Bataille, who hid them in the Bibliothèque nationale and fled.

Benjamin had been interned in 1939 as an enemy alien and suffered from a heart condition. Despite his weakened condition, the only way out was to cross clandestinely over the Pyrenees to Spain on what should have been the way to the United States via Portugal. He carried a brief case that contained a manuscript he described as “more important than my life.” Refused at the border, his visa not recognized, and about to be turned over to the Gestapo, Benjamin took the morphine he had been carrying in his pocket, and committed suicide.

The material he carried with him was lost. But over a thousand pages of notes for the major work of his life were recovered from the Bibliothèque nationale after the war. The “Arcades Project,” published in an English edition in 1999, is one of the most brilliant interpretations of early modern life.

This film presents the “The Arcades Project” in the context of Benjamin’s life and times. True to the spirit of Benjamin, “fragments” from his life and work in the 1930s are points of entry to explore his wider biography, from his family and childhood in Berlin, to his unconventional education, his radio plays for children, his travel to Moscow, and his life in exile in Paris. The film addresses Benjamin’s concerns as a German-Jewish intellectual, his friendships, and his failed romances.

The story is told, as much as possible, through Benjamin’s own writings, his correspondence, and quotations from The Arcades Project. The film incorporates footage and photographs of nineteenth and twentieth-century Paris, particularly the arcades, interviews with leading scholars, photographs of Benjamin, his family and associates, his handwritten manuscripts, notes, letters, and his flight from France to Port Bou Spain where he ended his life.

Walter Benjamin has wide and deep influences in many fields as a foremost intellectual of the 20th century. This one hour documentary should engage anyone interested in European culture and its fate in the 1920s to 1940s.

Please contact Judith Wechsler for appearances, screenings and DVDs.

Distributed by The Museum of Modern Art, NY, Circulating Film Library


How moved I am while watching your film. And I’m sure Benjamin himself would have been moved too, because it is a very Benjaminian achievement: the way you’ve orchestrated and concentrated so much—biography, twentieth-century history, cultural analysis, and sheer pictorial abundance—into a short space of time. The visuals, the audio-visual montage, the music, the overall pacing of the story and its branchings—all are brilliant. And produced with maximum succinctness and crystalline precision, with nothing lax or superfluous. You and your colleagues have done a really wonderful job!”
— Howard Eiland, co-author of Walter Benjamin, A Critical Life, Co- translator of The Arcades Project.

Absolutely beautiful, absolutely intelligent, and true to the sensibility of the Arcades project. ”
— Susan Buck-Morss, author of Dialectics of Seeing, Walter Benjamin and the Arcades Project.

I was engrossed immediately. The final images brought tears to my eyes; that insane and brutal history, so beyond belief, so impossible to come to terms with, ever. But how beautifully you bring back to life the arcades, the bric-a-brac, the detritus of the everyday, and make it reveal, as Benjamin also did, a larger picture. Even he comes alive again in these delicately phrased quotations from his notebooks. As for the music and voiceovers – so unobtrusive, poignant and respectful ….They abet our empathic entry into these other worlds, and it is as if we see them for the first time as contemporary, as inhabited by us.”
— Michael Jackson, Poet and anthropologist, Professor of comparative religion, Harvard University.

A rare probe into the developing mind of a giant. I will have to see it again, many times. Almost every image and quotation, and certainly the succession of a few at a time, convey a mixture of fascination and urgent question. ”
— Gerald Holton, Professor history of science, Harvard University.

I was moved to tears. It was wonderfully and elegantly filmed in its visual and written rhythms, and always intensely haunting and compassionate inside the display and life journey of an extraordinary being.
A deeply felt and original film that will be an important contribution to philosophy, literature and life itself.”
— Rudolph Wurlitzer, novelist and screenwriter.

The film is incredible; I’m staggered to visualize the enormous research involved in the gathering of every kind of image and putting in just the right one in the right place, finding the experts. I hope you can get an academy nomination.”
— James Ackerman. Professor Emeritus, Art history, Harvard.

Photos and documents related to the project

Click on any photo above to view enlarged version.

60 minutes. 2016.

Aby Warburg, (1866-1929), an art historian of startling originality, came from the renowned Warburg banking family of Hamburg, Germany. Already in his teens, the first of seven children, he made a deal with his next oldest brother, to forfeit his birth right to take over the family bank in exchange for full financial support in buying all the books that he would ever want. The library he assembled would become a refuge of scholarship. In 1933, with the Nazi takeover and the deprivation of Jewish rights, 60,000 books, photographs, and papers were shipped to London to become the Warburg Library and Institute eventually housed at the University of London.

This documentary on the life and work of Aby Warburg, traces the development of his ideas in their historical context. From his early studies on the early Italian Renaissance to his ventures in the American Southwest observing Hopi and Zuni ritual dances in 1895, Warburg sought the legacy of ancient Greece in the images and symbols of cultures, which he followed through iconographic studies that he pioneered. He sought connections between gesture and art in antiquity, the Renaissance and modern times. Underneath the seeming rationality of antiquity and the Renaissance, he sensed conflict and irrationality.

Aby Warburg never took an academic position but pursued his interests and collection of books with passion. Recurrent depressions lead to hospitalization in a psychiatric clinic in Switzerland 1921-1924. For the last five years of his life, he gave occasional lectures and seminars, but publishing almost nothing. Most notably, he developed a picture atlas, Mnemosyne, (the personification of Memory in Greek mythology,) consisting of 60 wooden panels with some 1000 images arranged according to themes and juxtapositions, concerning memory, astrology and mythology, archeology, migration of the ancient gods, vehicles of tradition, irruption of antiquity, Dionysiac formulae of emotions, Nike and Fortuna, Durer, the baroque, the reemergence of antiquity, Manet, the classical tradition today.

The principal motifs of Warburg’s scholarship are discussed by leading art historians in England, US and Germany, including Professors Michael Diers, Uwe Fleckner, David Freedberg, and Joseph Koerner. Filming took place in London and Hamburg.

This film should be of interest to anyone interested in the history of ideas, art history, social and cultural history.

Please contact Judith Wechsler for appearances, screenings and DVDs.

Distributed by The Museum of Modern Art, NY, Circulating Film Library


It’s a wonderful film, marvelously put together, beautifully sensitive to the man and to the work.”
— David Freedberg, Director, The Warburg Institute.
Professor of art history, Columbia University

So touching and daunting, so deep. The traversing (within and from) timed to its own perfection and yet at the same time alive to the imperfections that attended upon so much, in the times, in the persons, in the hopes. ”
— Christopher Ricks. Literary critic. Professor, Boston University

A brilliant and moving contribution to anthropology and art history, as well has given me a new and inspirational resource for deepening my own reflections on art and historicity. …
What an enormous amount of research and thought has been poured into this labor of love. For me it has paid off brilliantly - in a spate of edifying insights and new paths for thinking that no book could have given me.”
— Michael Jackson, Professor, Harvard Divinity School

Just watched your amazing Warburg film. It left me dazzled and melancholy. He was not like any other scholar the world has ever known. You managed to create a sense of the richness, indeed excessive richness of his ideas and yet keep the strands straight.”
— Linda Nochlin, Professor Emeritus of Art History, Institute of Fine Arts, NYU

Magnificent. A masterly film, an exposition of the possibility of desperate yet energizing internal contradictions in a person and in culture, and above all deeply moving experience.”
— Gerald Holton, Professor History of Science, Harvard

It is very simply a triumph. A visual-musical-intellectual feast. The audio-visual montage is masterly. The story of his life told beautifully and succinctly…. Truly moving to watch, indeed riveting.”
— Howard Eiland, Co-author Walter Benjamin: a Critical Life

…visualized intellectual history at its very, very best. The experts won´t be disappointed and the newcomers or a lay audience will be gripped by a compelling portrait that neither fails to present Warburg’s thriving forces, his organizing concepts and ideas, nor the historical and biographical contexts…. You succeeded in producing a miracle. ”
— Martin Bauer, Editor, Journal for the Hamburg Institute for Social Research

Brilliant—acutely intelligent, hauntingly and harrowingly moving, and so beautifully “collected” in its vision of that extraordinarily luminous, oracular conduit.”
— George Kalogeris. Poet, Classicist

Nahum N. Glatzer And the Transmission of German-Jewish Learning.
59 minutes. 2011.

Distributed by the Center for Jewish Film.

Photos and documents related to Nahum Glatzer

Click on any photo above to view enlarged version.

Selected Film Links

Excepts from the following films are available to view online. For a complete list of Judith Wechsler’s films see her CV. If you’d like more information about a particular film you can contact her directly.